General data

General presentation:

  • Area: 142.000 Km², that is 19% of the area of the kingdom
  • Population: 462.000 inhabitants (2004 census)
  • Urbanization rate: 62%
  • Activity rate: 42.3%
  • Density: 3.2 inhabitants/km2

Geographical location :

    The region is limited :
  • To the north: by the region of Souss-Massa-Draa.
  • To the east: by the Moroccan-Algerian border.
  • To the south: by the region of Laâyoune-Boujdour Sakia Alhamra and Mauritanian border.
  • To the west: by the Atlantic Ocean and regon of Laâyoune-Boujdour-Sakia Al Hamra.

Administrative organization:

    The Region of Guelmim Es-Smara gathers (5) provinces: Guelmim, Tan-Tan, Tata, Assa-Zag and Es-Smara, eleven (11) districts and sixty (60) communes including 11 urban.


    The climate of the region is influenced by several factors: the landscape, the Atlantic coast and the Sahara. In general the climate of the region is semi-arid .

    The region is featured by low rainfall (110 mm per year on average) due to the semi arid Saharan climate. This low rainfall does not constitute major problems given the significance of groundwater resources.

    The region is characterized by two important reliefs: the massif of the Anti-Atlas and the Hamada de Draa.


    Thanks to its geographical location north of the Sahara and in the foothills of the Anti-Atlas, its proximity to Algeria and Mauritania, the region of Guelmim-Es-Smara has played for a long time the role of crossroads of caravans transiting between north and south, and also a place of ethnic and cultural intermingling fostered by the inflow of many Arab and African tribes who have found a favorable environment to coexist with the local Berber tribes, thus constitute a rich and varied historical heritage .
    In this vast natural setting and authentic, a civilization built by the local man has arisen since the protohistoric period, enhanced and thriving in all fields during the Islamic era.

    This explains the growing In fact, research has led to the discovery of more than 270 archaeological and ethnographic sites in particular Asrir, the presumed site of the city of Noul Lamta, "Tigami Ougallid" (the house of the Sultan), a Kasbah of Almohads overlooking the oasis of Taghjijt, "Adrar Zerzem" which includes more than 265 markings on rocks and the granary "Agadir Id Eissa " in the village of Amtoudi where the team of researchers has successfully updated a document written on wood dating in the 14th century.
    These findings, in addition to their scientific value, provide a solid basis for the development of a very significant assessment project of the archaeological heritage which might contribute to the attainment of socioeconomic development of the region.

    By incorporating other aspects of cultural heritage, namely: the art and handicrafts, rites, traditions and customs, folklore, Hassani poetry etc. ...
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